Arequipa Climate Maps - Yearly, Monthly and Daily

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By Andre Geraldo Moraes1, Laura C Bowling1, Carlos Zeballos Velarde2, Keith A Cherkauer1

1. Purdue University 2. UNSA

Arequipa Climate Maps – Yearly, Monthly and Daily (ACM-YMD), contains 30 years (1988-2017) of annual, monthly and daily gridded climate maps based on daily precipitation, and maximum and minimum air temperature for the Arequipa Department in Peru.

Additional materials available

Version 2.0 - published on 09 Sep 2021 doi:10.4231/QCN0-BB65 - cite this Archived on 10 Oct 2021

Licensed under CC0 1.0 Universal



Climate is a powerful driver of agricultural and natural systems, and spatial climate data sets in digital form are currently in great demand. This is especially true in the Arequipa department of Peru, a region with low seasonal precipitation, significant topographic variability, and high demand for water resources in highly managed water systems. This dataset contains 30 years of annual, monthly and daily gridded climate maps of precipitation and maximum and minimum air temperature from January 1, 1988, to December 31, 2017. It was created using weather station data from the Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología del Perú (SENAMHI) and the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Global Summary of the Day (GSOD). Topography data, used as covariates for spatial interpolation, came from the ALOS World 3D DEM. Weather data went through extensive preprocessing for removal of implausible values, data gap filling, and inhomogeneity detection. Maps were created using a Regression Thin-Plate Splines (RTPS) method that made use of Polynomial and Potential Regression Models specifically developed for the region.

A manuscript entitled “Terrain sensitive climate maps for Arequipa region, Peru,” is under development and when published will contain information about the development of this dataset.

This dataset was developed by the Center for Sustainable Watershed Management of the Arequipa Nexus Institute (

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ACM-YMD version 2 expanded it's spatial coverage to all watersheds that are at least partially contained in the Arequipa department and run to the pacific ocean; made improvements to data quality checking, data gap-filling, and inhomogeneity detection processes applied to the source data; introduced a new regression to represent precipitation spatial trends that helps compensate for the weather station bias at higher elevations; substituted Ordinary kriging for Thin-Plate Splines for Interpolation of residues. The updated version outperforms the previous in external validation for every climatic variable and presents more consistent hydrology attributes.

The dataset can be more easily accessed through the ftp protocol as file on the PURR's FTP server. For instructions how to access the zip file, see

The Purdue University Research Repository (PURR) is a university core research facility provided by the Purdue University Libraries and the Office of the Executive Vice President for Research and Partnerships, with support from additional campus partners.